Scroll Top

Learning French Basics

Learning a new language might be challenging, you have to learn a whole new vocabulary and learn different grammar rules and various pronunciation rules. Also you need to learn that language’s grammar which lays the foundation for communicating in the language. In this article you’ll learn the introduction t the parts of speech and how to construct correct grammatical sentence.

Words are classified into parts of speech they are nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections.

Nouns – Nouns name things like people, objects, places, concepts and so on however there are few differences between French and English grammar for instance each French noun has a gender they are either masculine or feminine this is a very important part of forming a proper sentence as it forms the base of sentence construction. To determine the gender of the words you should look at the endings of the words however these have a few exceptions which you have to remember.

Masculine endings – ment, ail, vowels other than ‘e’, al, eur, eau, and isme.

Feminine endings – sion/tion, son, té, ée, ie, ade, ance/ence, and oire

Nouns are preceded by articles the words ‘a’ and ‘an’ while you learn the gender of the noun you should learn the articles that go with them. They are

  • definite articles – le, la,l’ and les
  • Indefinite articles – un, une and des
  • Partitive articles used to refer uncountable noun – du, de ‘la, de l’ and des

Pronouns – Pronouns are used to replace nouns to avoid their repetition while speaking

  • Subject pronouns used to refer a person – je, tu, il, elle, nous, vous, ils and elles
  • “disjunctive” and “emphatic” pronouns – moi, toi, lui, elle, soi, nous, vous, eux and elles.
  • Direct and Indirect Pronouns – direct – Me, te, le/la, nous, vous, les note – me, te, le/la become m’, t’, l’ + vowel or h.

Indirect – Me, te, LUI, nous, vous, LEUR – note – me and te become m’ or t’ + vowel or h.

Adjectives and adverbs

The adjectives describe the noun they have both gender and noun you can change the endings of the adjectives to match them with the noun. Generally you add ‘e’ to an adjective to make it feminine and you add ‘s’ to make the adjective plural.

An adverb is a word that modifies an verb, an adjective or another adverb. In French most of the adverbs end in ‘ment’. To the feminine and masculine forms of adjectives add ‘ment’ and to plural form of adjectives add ‘ent’ or ‘ant’ to form an adverb.

Prepositions – Prepositions are the words that link two parts of a sentence. In French, they are usually placed in front of nouns or pronouns to show the relationship between that noun/pronoun and a verb, adjective, or noun that precedes it. For instance, apresm avant, devant, derriere, dans, avant, depuis, contre, chez etc.

Conjunctions – these are words used to connect words for instance  mais, ou, et, donc, or, ni, car, comme,  puisque, quand, lorsque, que, si

Interjections – these are words used as exclamations mostly while speaking rather in writing for example Aïe, Ouïe, Ouille, Holà, Ouf, Oups, Zut, Merde etc



Leave a comment